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Dysmenorrhoea

It's important to consult a healthcare provider for a proper diagnosis and treatment plan if experiencing severe or persistent menstrual cramps. They can help determine the underlying cause and provide appropriate management strategies. Here are some common symptoms:

Symptoms:

  1. Missed Menstrual Period: One of the earliest signs of pregnancy is a missed menstrual period.

  2. Nausea and Morning Sickness: Many pregnant women experience nausea, particularly in the early stages of pregnancy.

  3. Breast Tenderness and Swelling: Hormonal changes can lead to breast tenderness and enlargement.

  4. Fatigue: Increased progesterone levels can lead to feelings of fatigue and lethargy.

  5. Frequent Urination: As the uterus expands, it puts pressure on the bladder, leading to increased urination.

  6. Mood Swings: Hormonal fluctuations can lead to mood swings and emotional changes.

Causes:

  1. Fertilization: Pregnancy occurs when sperm fertilizes an egg released by the ovary.

  2. Hormonal Changes: Pregnancy hormones, particularly hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) and progesterone, play a crucial role in supporting pregnancy.

  3. Implantation: After fertilization, the embryo must implant itself into the uterine lining for pregnancy to continue.

Impact on Women's Mental Health:

  1. Emotional Rollercoaster: Pregnancy hormones can lead to intense mood swings, ranging from euphoria to anxiety or sadness.

  2. Anxiety about Pregnancy Health: Concerns about the health and well-being of both the mother and the developing fetus can lead to anxiety.

  3. Body Image Concerns: Changes in the body during pregnancy, including weight gain and physical changes, may impact body image and self-esteem.

  4. Fertility Concerns: For women who have experienced fertility issues, anxiety about the viability of the pregnancy may persist.

  5. Relationship Dynamics: Pregnancy can bring about shifts in relationship dynamics, which can lead to emotional stress.

  6. Anticipation and Preparing for Parenthood: The anticipation of becoming a parent, along with the responsibilities it entails, can lead to a mix of emotions.

  7. Previous Pregnancy Loss: For women who have experienced previous miscarriages or pregnancy complications, anxiety about the current pregnancy may be heightened.

  8. Postpartum Anxiety: Concerns about the postpartum period and the challenges of new motherhood may begin during pregnancy.

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